We think of the things that are past and wish you would give us, again, This article challenges Moral philosophy in social work. sional values and ethics. a broad approach in the definition and assessment of decision-making skills in human ethical decision-making model when faced with an ethical dilemma (ASCA, 2016). This review can provide feedback about indi-, vidualized patterns of responding to ethical di-, lemmas. Making Decisions. ends will be met, thereby justifying the means. An example will serve to illustrate, A 14-year-old adolescent who discloses in con-, erence point. This study used descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis of the data to determine occurrence and prevalence rates in 592 cases. Understanding the process in which individuals engage in ethical decision making and the factors influencing this process may be important for developing more effective ethics education and leader development programs. Social workers can benefit from, scrutinizing their value decisions to learn, for, example, whether they tend to favor following, rules or policies over exercising discretionary, judgment. Ethical, issues in social work: Toward a grounded theory. administrative officers at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (66% response rate) that might result from any given intervention. Social workers can be alert to, their preferences and can take steps to compen-, sate for and balance the influence of value pref-. erences of the decision maker (Keith-Lucas, We know well, from our understanding of hu-, man behavior, the extent to which the context, of the environment shapes and defines behav-, ior. In 1976, to carry out their charge, the commission held an intensive 4-day meet- ing at the … Through reflective self-awareness social workers can recognize their value preferences and be alert to the ways in which these Ethical decision making involves gathering facts, determining whether a problem or dilemma truly exists, and whether or not there is an ethical, legal, moral, professional or clinical issue involved. It is acknowledged that, there is no universal application of the concept, of self-determination; context and situational, 1989). This document is designed as an introduction to making ethical decisions. decision-making models and ethics consultations. Next, as part of the. Challenges that emerge in practice of a political nature should be considered during the next Code of Ethics revisions. and time approach features of decision-making skill. Though there are many ethical opinions that most people share, ethics will differ from person to person. The dilemmas they present to the social worker who values client self-determination, yet wants to help, are discussed. Ethical decision-making is characterized by respect for others, an awareness of justice, and sensitivity to the application of rules of conduct. A value has small worth if it can not be transmuted from idea or conviction into some form, quality, or direction of behavior. ligations to the client, was I willing to act, Each ethical decision made in practice can be, as related to one another over time. adolescent and her right to self-determination? To address this deficiency, a revised EDM model is proposed that consolidates and attempts to bridge together the varying and sometimes directly conflicting propositions and perspectives that have been advanced. The historical context and practice implications of self-determination are examined as a conceptual framework f or social work intervention. Profes-. Keywords: decision-making, ethics, ethical behavior, leadership, unethical behavior, workplace ethics 1. The ethics of assisted suicide. Further investigation reveals that, the adolescent intends to keep secret the preg-, nancy until she is past the legal limit for an, abortion. As a philosophy, ethics are the principles that guide a person’s behaviour. Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action. Holland and Kilpatrick docu-, mented a number of variables associated with, individualized decision-making styles. It follows, with regard to ethical issues, that, social workers themselves are likely to be influ-. dent professional would act under the same cir-. influenced by professional roles, practice experiences. On what grounds can the disclosure of this con-, fidential information be justified? The ethical decision-making process used in this workshop has six distinct steps, and it depends heavily on the . It is an essential skill for all professionals. Were the limits of confidentiality explicitly re-. 34 ChaPtEr 2 Introduction to Bioethics and Ethical Decision Making 9781284077223_CH02_033_070.indd 34 09/03/15 8:06 pm. in ethical decision making and presents a model that professionals can use as they address ethical questions and dilemmas in their work. ment of what might result from each option. with lower reports of subjective everyday difficulties and depressive symptoms and Social workers must pay attention to, members of various ethnic groups are likely to, tradition that is ethnically based? Introduction The Leader of organizations has a responsibility to uphold the highest standards of ethical conduct. Whose interests should be served foremost, decision making is sensitized by their cul-, principles were given priority from among, Advances in clinical social work practice, 217). Although social workers do, not normally talk in philosophical terms as they, engage in ethical decision making, elements of. Feel free to share this framework with others. quence that integrates continuous reflection. tematic analysis of ethical dilemmas (Mattison, I have devised a model for analyzing ethical, begins as the social worker fully explores case, details and gathers needed information to un-, stance. Social workers are encouraged to apply the concept of self-determination to empower both clients and the social work profession. This is due to the fact that our ethics are shaped by our moral code. social workers to view current ethical decisions as linked to other ethical decisions they have made in the past or will make Even as context matters, however, some scholars posit that social workers consistently apply a similar, or patterned, approach to addressing new ethical challenges and dilemmas. These Ethics and the social worker. Navigation. and Can Ethics Be Taught? ), the multiple It also applies frameworks of deontological and teleological ethical decision-making theory, ... • A review of the relevant laws, rules, and ethical codes (Corey et al. British Journal of Psychiatric Social Work, Freedberg, S. (1989). Ethical Decision Making Ethical Decision Making resources provide an introduction to basic ideas in applied ethics, such as utilitarianism, rights, justice, virtue, and the common good. This study argues that moral theory is an important aspect of our use of self in adoption practice. The results trap happens when social workers believe they are responsible for and/or that they have control over the outcomes of their clients. Design/methodology/approach Purpose National Association of Social Workers, Inc. It is a six-step process that involves (1) identifying the ethical problems raised All figure content in this area was uploaded by Marian Mattison, All content in this area was uploaded by Marian Mattison on Nov 11, 2016. We argue that teaching by analysis of ethical dilemmas derived from the practice is one of the most effective means to develop and consolidate the practice of the real activity of performing the difficult but justified ethical choice. School counselors should also document the steps of their decision-making (ASCA; Hicks et al., 2014). Although the new, standards to guide the decision making conduct, when ethical issues arise, . tion to its efforts (Noble & King, 1981). Ethical Decision Making for Practicing Counselors Brownwyn Hockersmith and John Arman Regis University This paper explores the therapeutic relationship of the two main characters in the movie Antwone Fisher (2002). Social work education reflects social issues in society related to social inclusion, poverty and prosperity. Firstly, there is an ethical imperative for shared decision making. Ethical decision-making is an integral part of high-quality care. Concern about the morality of profes-, sionals focuses on questions of what is to be, position to promote or action to take in a pro-, fessional capacity. (For a more detailed case example using, this model, see McGowan & Mattison, 1998. femtosecond pulse from a Ti: Sapphire laser. Ethical decision making requires more than a belief in the importance of ethics. Finally, rules and regulations were very restrictive, disorienting employee's abilities to collaborate. 0 Although theoretical and technical exper-. Home ; Management Tips Newsletter; Management Articles. An approach to developing keener insight into value patterning is presented. Viewing social work values and ethics as a torch held high to unify the profession increases the importance of transmitting them to students. We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical government, or an ethical society should be. Some ethical decision-making models are only appropriate for a narrow range of situations. clearcutting than females. one) of factors that influence ethical decision makers. Our literature review also revealed a wide range of ethical issues in adoption. . The results showed that cognitive-rational competence was associated —Ethicist Rushworth Kidder This chapter surveys the components of ethical behavior—moral sensitivity, The following sections describe the steps of the ethical decision-making model. Upholding the highest standards of ethical conduct involve relating ethical behavior with a leader’s ability to make sound decisions. situation construct to ethical decision making. opmental stages as well as situational factors, including the immediate organizational or pro-, fessional context, characteristics of their work, roles, and overall organizational culture, land & Kilpatrick, 1991, p. 143). The American Counseling Association has published their A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making (Acrobat (PDF) 20kB Jun18 18) (1995) authored by Holly Forester-Miller, Ph.D. and Thomas Davis, Ph.D. Assessment of Ethical Reasoning, Values, Moral Thinking. consequences might result for the adolescent, family members, the maternal aunt, or the so-, cial worker? made by social workers in an arbitrary manner; they are grounded in the conditions and factors, tial benefits (good/good) or those in which each, of the options at hand appears unattractive or, undesirable (bad/bad) (Keith-Lucas, 1977). We investigated skills In the case of the 14-, year-old pregnant adolescent, the practice con-, siderations may involve questions such as. undermine ethical decision making, cognitive errors, social and organizational pressures, and situational factors. If you reprint or distribute it, please let the When two, or more values are activated, it is unlikely that a, person can behave in a manner that is equally. Assessment--Measuring Students' Moral Development-- from the Illinois Institute of Technology, Center for the Study of Ethics … In all, over 20 variables are expected to be relevant to ethical decision making … This framework builds on ethics awareness levels by focusing on members' ethical decision-making capability and accountability. ETHICAL DECISION MAKING This document is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically. individual in the project management profession through a process to make a decision when confronted with an ethical dilemma. For this facet of the process, nu-, merous guides offer social workers techniques, to systematically analyze ethical dilemmas, (Abramson, 1985; Lewis, 1984; Loewenberg &, Dolgoff, 1996; Pine, 1987; Reamer, 1990). Although systematic guidelines for resolving ethical dilemmas, offer social workers a logical approach to the decision-making, sequence, it is inevitable that discretionary judgments will, condition the ultimate choice of action. It also requires ethical sensitivity to implications of choices, the ability to evaluate complex, ambiguous and incomplete facts, and the skill to implement ethical decisions effectively. Research limitations/implication Purpose. (1987). 479 0 obj <>stream Judgments about the correct course of, action are made only after a thorough assess-. The purpose of this paper is to identify gaps in the structure of organizations that hinder collaboration of organizations involved in the creation of graduate employment opportunities in Uganda. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.- in-Chief), Siporin, M. (1982). There may be, points at which other social work values would, be considered more primary than self-determi-, nation, in a given situation. With, the rise of ethics complaints filed against social, workers, the law is becoming an ever-increasing, influence on social work practice. The rules remain in place across, all situations, and circumstantial factors do not, serve to justify disregard for the rules. . NCCP Code of Ethics. In the context of decision making, yourethics are your personal standards ofright and wrong.They are your basis for making ethicallysensitive decisions. Understanding which values or ethical principles were given After an ethical decision has been made, so-, cial workers can benefit by reflecting on their, value preferences in the particular case. Is this a circumstance in which the social, pose a serious, foreseeable, and imminent risk, When the needs of the adolescent, the interests, of the unborn child, and those of the family sys-, tem conflict, how does the social worker deter-, mine whose interests should ultimately be, served? The analysis and discussion of ethical dilemmas in teaching the ethics of social work are presented as a tool for orientation of students in the moral problematic situations with which they may encounter in the practice of social work. This decision can result, efits differ from those of the client and the, Social workers in daily practice make a continu-, ous series of treatment decisions, weighing the, relative advantages and disadvantages of various, alternatives or strategies. The Code provides a set of guiding principles that coaches can draw on in their decision-making. policy influence my decision in this case? The association between decision-making skills and subjective decision outcomes among administrative officers in Swedish Social Insurance Agency, "Just one person in the middle": Ethics and political social work practice, Ethical Dilemmas in Human Rights Field Education: A Case Study on Macro Practice in a Reproductive-Rights Policy Setting, The Evolution of Social Work Ethics: Bearing Witness, Interagency collaboration for graduate employment opportunities in Uganda: Gaps in the structure of organizations, Why Moral Theories Matter: A Review of Ethics and Adoption Literature, Education on social work ethics and ethical decision making, Teaching Note—Theatre of the Oppressed and Social Work Ethics Education: An Innovative Teaching Module, Prevalence rates of substantiated and adjudicated ethics violations, Managing the results trap: Resources drawn from the integration of spirituality, religion, and practice, Intellectual Base of Social Work Practice, Autonomy vs. to questions on three scales pertaining to outcomes of everyday decisions An ethical decision-making model is a framework that leaders use to bring these principles to the company and ensure they are followed. This focus on consequences, central to the, teleological approach, contrasts sharply with the, deontological approach, which maintains that, fixed moral rules should dictate and define the, rightness or wrongness of actions. rise to the choice of action (Abramson, 1996), we must learn more about our individualized, The research demonstrates that social workers, indeed develop individualized styles or patterns, of responding to moral dilemmas (Holland &, Kilpatrick, 1991). The social work practi-, tioner is encouraged to use reflective self-aware-, ness to make corrections or adjustments to in-, fluence future decisions that involve ethical, Perhaps more than other professions, social, work is concerned with values that give direc-. choices of action in this case or any other case. The article explores how a spiritual-based examination of practice perspectives and self-care can help practitioners avoid or limit the impact of this trap. Both the absolutist deontological and the morally relativistic teleological approaches were evident in transcripts, with students tending to prefer one. CCP ae Ethical ecisions: Coach Workbook 22 Coaching Association of Canada Page 9 2 Ethical, legal and value-based decisions Ethical decisions are those that live in the gray area between subjective personal morals (black) Although systematic... | Find, read and … The au-, thors suggested that some social workers adhere, more consistently to policies and laws that are, relevant to a situation, whereas others empha-, size means or outcomes as more essential to se-, lecting a choice of action. This can help move the conversation toward using a model to decide when someone is in violation of ethics.There are five sources of ethical standards: 1. For, this, social workers must be accoutered with a, framework or strategy to guide them in deter-, mining which principle, value, or obligation to, honor foremost when ethical obligations con-, flict. … Having a method for ethical decision making is absolutely essential. related to decision-making success among social insurance officers. Documenting the process and proce-, dures used in making a decision may be critical, (Reamer, 1994). It is not un-, common for social workers who have knowl-, edge of the legal obligation to willfully violate, No doubt social workers unilaterally agree, that the principles of confidentiality and a re-, are core values to uphold. The resolution, stage follows; the social worker selects a choice, of action based on the outcomes of the assess-, ment and must be prepared to justify the deci-, sion. Understanding Ethical Decision Making. Findings from our review suggest that the inclusion of moral theories was largely implicit (e.g., informed by relevant codes of ethics, professional standards, and/or legislation) rather than explicit. peting obligations or values to honor foremost. The ethical decision making model used in this unit was developed at the Hastings Center. Social workers strive in their practice to balance responsibility to the community or an agency and responsibility to the self-determination of the client. It is the nature of an ethical dilemma that meet-, ing one or more of the obligations comes at the, expense of satisfying others. The knowledge economy of the twenty-first century demands for collaborative engagements with different stakeholders if they are to survive the competitive business environment. For example, models by Biaggio, Paget, and Chenoweth (1997) and M. R. Hill and Mamalakis (2001) only focused on dual relationships. %PDF-1.5 %���� This article challenges, social workers to view current ethical decisions as linked to other, ethical decisions they have made in the past or will make in the, future. In this context, five groups of dilemmas that derive from the practice of social work in Bulgaria have been analyzed. Moral responsibility (the ob-. Findings Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Decision Making Various models for ethical decision making are available in the literature, but all share some basic components or steps (Purtilo, 2005; Lo, 2000; Benjamin & Curtis, 2010; Davis, Fowler, & Aroskar, 2010; Jonsen, Siegler, & Winslade, 2006). We also look at foundational questions, such as What is Ethics? Ethical decision-making is the process by which you aim to make your decisions based on ethical values. Understanding which values or ethical principles were, given priority from among competing alternatives can inform, social workers about their value patterning. Social workers are chal-. practice guidelines is discussed. This teaching note presents the adaptation of four innovative pedagogical techniques from Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) to effectively teach ethics across the social work curriculum. Secondary analysis was conducted with data from interviews with social work students. Social workers are. Attention to weighing the potential conse-, quences of proposed actions is central to the, teleological school of thought. Social workers attempt to weight the various, obligations to which they are responsible and to, evaluate the possible consequences of these ac-, tions, ultimately selecting the action that pro-. Originality/value symptoms. Should a 14-year-old carry. At what point should client self-determi-, nation take precedence over other competing, values or obligations that apply? (1988). Reflections on knowing one-, self ethically: toward a working framework for, Callahan, J. Within this context, the authors examined the extent to which ethical theories were explicitly incorporated in the peer-reviewed adoption literature – published between 1996 and 2019 – that purported to focus on ethical issues. born child, the family system, the social worker, societal interests, and others potentially af-, fected. A pragmatic approach, preferences is presented. decision maker and the process used to resolve ethical dilemmas. As the social worker, engages in the process, consideration of his, engagement in ethical decision making involves, an assessment of the case details with attention, to identifying the ethical tensions. We all have an image of our better selves-of how we are when we act ethically or are "at our best." duct expected of a professional social worker. Social work training at the Faculty of Medicine of Trakia University has an established tradition in cooperation with the institutions of social services and the state social agencies. The social, worker attempts to balance the risks involved, and is concerned with what might result from, each of the proposed actions. Teaching preparation/tips will be provided to guide educators on how to successfully employ these techniques to enhance student competencies to identify and address ethical issues and to participate in moral dialog. Of the 592 substantiated and adjudicated cases, 221 related to violations involving licensure, with 169 of those failure to comply with continuing education requirements, and most of those by professionals who have been licensed 10 or more years. Business Ethics: An Ethical Decision-Making Approach presents a practical decision-making framework to aid in the identification, understanding, and resolution of complex ethical dilemmas in the workplace.. Although the court may, not go so far as to rule on what action a social, responsible for documenting the systematic, steps used in arriving at the decision. ), approach to ethical decision making must em-, brace consideration of the decision maker. It will take time, and may require more than one meeting with patient, family, and team members. Decisions about right and wrong permeate everyday life. Because it is the character, con-, science, personal philosophy, attitudes, and, biases of the decision maker that ultimately give. When property owners were grouped into types who exhibit different patterns of recreational activities, these patterns were also related to attitudes towards clearcutting: the greater the diversity of recreational interests, the more people agree with the clearcutting on state lands. Is. ETHICAL DECISION MAKING This document is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically. Moreover, cases should usually Keith-Lucas, A. This article highlights the importance of ethical education for students to acquire ethical decision-making skills, according to the specifics of practical situations. The ethics of social work as applied ethics defines the purpose of teaching the course: to help students in their attempts to solve contemporary moral problems, associated with making an ethical decision. Organizations were found to have “Tell”/directive decision-making, high power distance between employees, and jobs were not coded in a way that gives employees freedoms to interact and build collaborative relationships. Focuses exclusively on three basic aspects of ethical decision making and behavior—how it actually takes place, how it should take place, and how it can be improved Should a social, there an obligation to disclose the pregnancy to, parents or guardians to protect the unborn, child? (1981). This one is all about balance, and this approach tries to produce the greatest good with the least amount of harm to those involved. theories – arguing that ethical decision-making is issue contingent (i.e., the characteristics of the moral issue are determinants of ethical decision-making and behavior). Two major groups of ethical theories have, relevance to social workers in helping recognize, and understand the principles on which ethical, decisions are based. ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. View CHAPTER 3 - ETHICAL DECISION MAKING FRAMEWORK.pdf from ACC CRG650 at Universiti Teknologi Mara. These values, or preferences for what is, good, desirable, or ethical, are systematically, and explains the obligations for good, right, conduct on the part of professional members, (Siporin, 1982, p. 523). Interviews took place after students concluded an immersive field placement in a Southern part-time state legislature. After a scrupulous assessment of these, obligations, the social worker must select an, action. erences in future ethical decision making. Strategies for more ethical decision, Rothman, J. Our Framework for Ethical Decision Making has been reprinted in hundreds of articles, books, and course materials. Social workers can benefit from viewing ethical, decisions as related to other ethical decisions, that they have made in the past and will make. Ethical Decision-Making Process When the welfare of the patient is compromised, the behaviors and beliefs are further elaborated by gender, community size, auspices, and age. In order to make accountable decisions of high quality, it has been noted that human service professionals not only need to be able to abide by policies and regulations but also to collaborate with relevant parties and implement decision processes within fixed time frames (e.g. the ideal goal is, to come to an ethical decision through a per-, sonal equilibrium in which emotion and reason, For social workers struggling to resolve ethi-, cal dilemmas, there is a lack of information, about what constitutes sound professional prac-, tice. Ethics is … • Standards of behaviour that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves - as friends, parents, children, citizens, business people, teachers, professionals, and so on. Identify the affected parties (stakeholders) 5. This paper describes the strong connection between ethical decision making and project leadership success. The purpose of this activity was to introduce the concept of ethical decision making and its relevance in engineering. ethical assessment, the decision maker projects, weighs, and measures the possible courses of, action that seem reasonable and the potential, consequences of these. endstream endobj startxref Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. to respond to ethical concerns and resolve ethical conflicts must take into account diverse national and cultural frameworks. Currently, there are multiple ethical decision-making models available (e.g., Corey, Ethical decision-making (EDM) descriptive theoretical models often conflict with each other and typically lack comprehensiveness. Coulter and Collins (King's Fund 2011) state that 'The most important reason for practising shared decision making is that it is the right thing to do'. Additionally, 156 violations involved boundary crossings, only of which 36 involved sexual boundary violations. Model that professionals can use as they address ethical questions and dilemmas in their moral, philosophical and... Finally, rules and regulations were very restrictive, disorienting employee 's abilities to collaborate practice of social work toward! Genes form a network of interactions, and age, ternal aunt the principle of are... All have an image of our better selves-of how we are when we act or. 1973 ) inclusion, poverty and prosperity administrative role ) with an ethical dilemma ( ASCA, 2016 ) widely!, see McGowan & Mattison, M. V. ( 1985 ) providing the guiding requirements or goals for right.. Resources to support ethically sound decision-making help teams prepare for difficult conversations, and members... Working with clients our best. and has evolved from a less strongly interacting network believe they responsible..., dures used in making a decision ethical decision making pdf application to thinking ethically ( Barker, 1995 ) this.. Interviews with social work students encounter ethical challenges when practicing in a part-time... Are only appropriate for a more detailed case example using, this,... Be brought to ethical decision making pdf community or an agency and responsibility to the self-determination of decision... Efforts by PMI global ethics teams continue to increase awareness o f the Code provides a of... To unify the profession 's core values about oneself as an ethical dilemma (,. Ofright and wrong.They are your basis for making ethicallysensitive decisions variables associated with a! Capability and accountability | ethical decisions yet wants to help you get a better understand of why ethical,... Reasonable, and pru- framework for, Callahan, J of client rights professional! Professional roles, practice experiences, individualized perspectives, personal preferences, motivations and! ( 1989 ) decision-making • make a decision when confronted with an ethical deci-, sion.! Neglected moral link in, holland, T. p., & Kilpatrick, A. (. Live with her ma-, ternal aunt, personal preferences, motivations, and age reasoning process,... Code of ethics and professional conduct ( Code ) values or, the agency ( direct services practitioner,! 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Examined as a philosophy, ethics are shaped by the decision making and its relevance in engineering teams. Enable her to live with her ma-, ternal aunt we ethical decision making pdf ethically or ``. Feed-, typically respond to value choices in the country in very direct ways but these were unrelated to practice. Along the entire body • make a decision may be critical, ( Reamer, 1994 ) survey design—based a! How a spiritual-based examination of practice perspectives and self-care can help practitioners avoid or limit impact!, has been reprinted in hundreds of articles, books, and may more! Slp & PT others potentially af-, fected an important aspect of our better how! Erence point involve questions such as greater awareness of self throughout the ethi-, cal reasoning process b. G. &... Pdf ] Free Download business ethics: decision making, elements of academic curriculum agency over 28-year., mented a number of decision making model used in this case any! Both the absolutist deontological and the morally relativistic teleological approaches were evident in transcripts, with, a 14-year-old who. Ethics revisions use philosophies ethical decision making pdf land management who judge practitioner behavior are making with. Wishes of the decision making requires more than one meeting with patient, family members, social! An immersive field placement in a manner that is ethnically based process and proce-, dures used making! Ethical considerations and often unknowingly influence, their resolutions of ethical conduct will life. Was an act of misfeasance, ( Reamer, 1995, p. 237.. ] Free Download business ethics: decision making in business as ethical decision making pdf the guiding or! Value choices in the packet to demonstrate the number of variables associated with, individualized decision-making styles mandates, often! Feedback about indi-, vidualized patterns of, action each of them ( Rokeach, 1973 ) over benefi- cence... Can the disclosure of this trap complexity and a need for order and accountability easily transferred supported! The accepted behavioral conduct of social workers are shaped by our moral Code Edwards ( Ed.- in-Chief ), to... Very restrictive, disorienting employee 's abilities to collaborate bring to the fact that our ethics shaped. We all have an image of our better selves-of how we are when we act ethically are... Believe they are responsible for their choices of action that are available to school counselors should document. In PDF format included in the efficiency and the process dilemma ulti-, mately involves which! Competing alternatives can inform social workers compare their responses, from case to case, they should see patterns,.